Rosewood: "One Last Breath"
Demorrow, Bergerault, Marimba One, Adams, Majestic, and Mode Marimba.Inc. represent their views on the state and future of rosewood as a commodity for marimbas.
International marimba manufacturers panel on the state of and future of trading and transporting endangered rosewood.
Transcript : Each participant shares their ideas on rosewood, its importance and its challenges for the future.
PASIC 2018 - Panel Discussion: “Rosewood: One Last Breath?”
Saturday, November 17th, 9AM Room 201
Gordon Stout, moderator. Doug DeMorrow. Ron Samuels. Omar Carmenates. Mark
Ford. John Glowka. She-e Wu. Fernando Meza. Frans Swinkels.
Thomas Burritt (Presider)”
Happy Saturday morning to everybody at PASIC.
It is my honor as keyboard committee member to get today’s session started.
It is obviously a very important topic near and dear to so many of our hearts.
Gordon Stout will be our moderator this morning. You all know Gordon, I'm sure.
He is a PAS Hall of Fame Member and obviously very passionate about this topic, I'm
now going to turn it over to Gordon and waste no more time.
Gordon Stout (Moderator): Thank you Thomas
A wonderful panel has been put together here. I am very happy to have them all here.
Having written to each of them in advance, they each have 2-3 minutes to answer
questions that I posed to them.
1. What are the problems with continuing to make Honduran Rosewood marimbas into
the future (the next 10-20 years)?
2. As a manufacturer what will your company do about the dwindling supply of
3. As a player/educator/professional should we do everything possible to foster an
attitude that puts the respect of the wood at the highest level? Should there be a
paradigm shift in the consciousness of the percussion industry and community towards
Please feel free to answer any of those questions however you might wish.
Gordon: At PASIC 2013 Omar presented a discussion about Rosewood based on his
doctoral dissertation. That was never another session was to further discuss the ideas and
knowledge presented at that time. The main reason I submitted this proposal was to
follow up on the information he presented in 2013.
Omar Carmenates (Furman University):
It’s an honor to join this esteemed panel and to get to talk about this topic that’s very
dear to me. I was hoping I go a little later depending on where the room went. So I'm
going to come at this probably from a different angle than most of the people on stage, to
the questions of what are the problems of continuing to make Rosewood marimbas into
A couple things I think we all have to understand is that we have the industry, we have
performers, how we treat the instruments and how we build them. However there is a
global aspect of this and it is important that all of us understand that perspective and how
the socio-political environment in all these other things fit into our instrument - we're
just but a small part of that.
To start, I think one thing certainly its something that manufacturers know. There
aren't necessarily rows of Rosewood trees waiting on a neat farm. It’s a jungle tree. It
grows in the wild. This is very important. It is part of a local ecosystem in Guatemala
and Belize. It is part of an economy. It is part of a society there and it grows in a very
small part of the world.
So many issues we face are not just how we will build them, how we play them, but
there are issues of climate change, habitat loss, slash and burn agriculture, cattle grazing,
the furniture industry, and how the wood is used in all those industries. We are but a very
small part of that and some of the larger things to consider are the economy: when it
comes down to it the people, when it comes to feed their family they are going to do what
pays the most. And right now that’s slashing and burning the forest, for cattle and
agriculture so they can sell meat on the market. Having cattle is very resource intensive.
You have to create a lot of grass, you have to cut down the forest, burn it all down which
creates fertilizer for the grass and then the cattle can graze.
Beyond just our industry there are issues like that and construction. That is another
part of it. CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild
Fauna and Flora)is trying to regulate the use of Rosewood from the top down. They are
well intentioned. What happens when those things come into effect are global initiatives,
that are important to speak of.
The last thing: the more economically valuable the tree is to the economy of the
people of Belize and Guatemala, the more likely we are to have a supply in the future
Gordon: Thank you Omar. After each of the panel presents their answers and thoughts,
then of course we will open it up to questions and discussions from the audience
We will just go right down the line: Doug would you like to go next?
Doug DeMorrow (DeMorrow Instruments):
Thanks for coming this morning, It is a very important topic as far as maintaining the
marimba into the future. As Omar stated, there are lots of factors that control what we
do that are way beyond us, such as government intervention, and rules and regulations on
how things are supposed to work.
How they are now trying to control it really effects our supply of Rosewood. For
example, yesterday a gentleman came up to me and said he had put in to order multiple
rosewood keyboards for his district and was told his request was turned down because
the person in charge of the money said: no, you are going to have to get synthetic
keyboards because we're trying to be good stewards of Rosewood, which means he was
not going to be allowed to buy the rosewood because it is a controlled species of wood.
Rosewood is the only wood that does what it does in the entire world. There are other
woods that kind of come close, like Paduk, but it is not as good as Rosewood. My
feeling is that because Honduran Rosewood is a single purpose wood, is so limited in
where its grown, it’s actually fulfilling its true purpose when we create musical
instruments out it. Nothing else is like it. We can build furniture from any kind of wood.
You can do this yet if you take the Rosewood away from the marimba you change the
marimba as we know it. The marimba will likely change over time. It’s very possible
that the availability of the wood will get to a point where it’s not commercially
sustainable to use for making marimbas. I know, from my experience, in finding the
wood from other sources that the cost of the wood has dramatically gone up but it hasn't
really been reflected in our industry yet as far as the cost of the instruments.
You have to get an import permit, as the use of how much of the wood is being closely
controlled by CITES. It could become like Brazilian Rosewood which is shut down.
Those kinds of things are things completely out of our control and we don’t know how
we are going to deal with it when that happens.
Mark Ford (Bergerault/North Texas University):
Thank you Gordon and thank you to all my esteemed guests on the panel. It is an
honor to be with you all.
I have a passive voice right now. Through my research, as Doug alluded to, I have
learned that CITES is an organization which overseas the type of use of products and
organic products that are endangered. It was in their 2016 conference when they
identified Dalbergia Icanus wood as endangered, which includes Honduras Rosewood
and many other kinds of Rosewood. Starting in Jan 2017 there was a worldwide ban on
this Rosewood to protect it. In order for any company (and of course Doug and Ron
could talk to a greater extent about this) to import they must have their approval or it
can’t come into the country. It will sit in storage areas if it doesn’t have the correct
paperwork. And it doesn’t of course always guarantee that the wood that they are
receiving is the quality of wood that they want to have to be used for making the
I spoke with Bergerault. They are based in France. Most of their Rosewood, if not
all of it, is coming through Guatemala. They know that it is more and more difficult to
move the wood over the seas. It takes a lot of planning and also just an opportunity for
the people on both ends (export and import) to approve that purchase.
I think if you are going to change the world, the only way that we can do this is to
come together. I was looking for an opportunity to find an organization with furniture
makers of the world. China is a huge importer of Rosewood. They have an amazing
addiction to Rosewood furniture. Without addressing this issue, really this conference or
these discussions might go no where. But the idea here is that we would try to develop
some kind of organization. I was looking for one in the USA that was trying to answer the
question and to deal with too much use of Rosewood for furniture. And when we need it
for the instruments. We need it for the guitars, and we need it for other artistic purposes.
I couldn’t find such an organization. If we are going to make a real difference in the
world, we have to be able to find a way to coordinate and to cooperate with organizations
that reach these other areas of use of Rosewood. Also needed is more research and
development of materials that sound like Rosewood but are not rosewood. Currently in
my opinion and as most of you know, the synthetic bars that are currently in use are ok
but they really don’t sound like we want them to sound. They may be OK when used OK
for certain educational purposes but not suitable for artistic purposes yet,. I am hopeful
that in the near future that will change and I think you are going to hear some news about
that. I look forward to hearing about such ventures soon.
Ron Samuels (Marimba One):
Thanks Gordon. I first realized that rosewood was becoming more and more difficult
to find about 10 years ago. At that time I started traveling down to Central America.
Rosewood grows in both Belize and Guatemala on the east and west side of the Maya
I eventually struck up a relationship with a Mayan family in Belize. There are Mayan
villages in and around Belize and they are mostly living very basic lives. The way they
were milling Rosewood at that time was they would take logs and literally put them on a
table saw and they would push them through. They were constantly burning up the table
I shipped them a mobile dimension band saw mill along with over 100 band saw
blades and a blade sharpening set up. I traded them rosewood for the band saw mill.
The reason I sent them the sharpening system was because they used to have to travel a
whole day just to get a blade sharpened.
The family that I sent the mill to eventually ended up employing a lot of people in
their village to cut the Rosewood. I went down there many times to set up the mill and
to show them how we liked the wood to be milled.
The idea behind this was I wanted the Rosewood trees to be cut in such a way as to
maximize the highest quality marimba bars from the trees. When the trees were done
being cut into marimba bars, myself and a few other people would go to Belize and
inspect each and every piece of Rosewood. We would be several days on our knees with
chickens and pigs running around, looking at future marimba bars, making sure they
were all good.
There is definitely slash and burn happening, like Omar was saying, but also there is
a lot of poaching because the Rosewood trees are so valuable. And what has happened,
at least in this one village, they are less incentivized to poach the wood because now
they are employed cutting the wood—making a value added product.
Also in Belize, what’s happened in the past 2 years is they are now cutting Rosewood
on a rotational tract basis. They have some large areas of land that they haven’t cut in a
long time and they broke this particular area up into 30 individual pieces. In the first
year, they cut all the Rosewood trees that were 12” and bigger in diameter on the first
tract of land. And the next year they cut all the rosewood 12” and bigger on the 2nd tract.
Eventually, after 30 years, they will come back to the first track of land and those
Rosewood trees that were left will be cut, but only the ones that are 12” and larger in
diameter. This is their idea of sustaining Rosewood—and it works so long as the wood
is not poached. It’s important that Rosewood is valuable to the communities where it
grows so that the local people are motivated to make value added products out of it.
We also get wood from Guatemala. I really like going down to Central America to
source the Rosewood. In Guatemala the way it works is they have Rosewood nurseries
set up, there’s people out in the forest that find the Rosewood seed pods. Rosewood is in
the legume family. They take the seed pods, crack them open and plant the seeds. I’ve
been to nurseries with thousands of Rosewood trees growing. It is great that all of these
things are happing, but still Rosewood is totally stressed out.
I guess there is one other thing I’d like to say: I believe as instrument makers, we are
all getting our wood from these same regions whether it be Belize or Guatemala It is
super important for manufacturers to tune each piece of wood as well possible.
Rosewood demands this of us, out of respect for this most amazing of woods. It is like
the idea if you are planning to cook a great meal, you could get the best ingredients, but
if you burn the food, even though you used great ingredients, the results are still
The exact same thing applies to Rosewood. You can take a great piece of rosewood
and not tune it correctly, and it will not be musical. Making marimbas that have bars
that are tuned well so that they do not break is its own act of conservation.
Hans Swinkles (Adams):
Thank you Gordon for having me here. And for all the speakers that have spoken
before, I think that a lot of things are are similar to my experiences. I’ve been coming to
Belize for the past 20 years and we have an old saw mill there as well. I was also
interested in the politics because this whole Rosewood thing has to deal with politics.
You have the Maya and you have the regular government. The Mayas is a very strong
culture in Belize and they own a big part of the country and in that part there is a lot of
Rosewood. The government says at one moment the land belongs to us and the Maya
said no it belongs to us. It went to court and the Maya won. And that was a big fight
between the two that the Mayas had Rosewood which the government called illegal
Rosewood. And so there is Rosewood because people have to survive, it is a poor
country they have to eat to feed their children they have to feed their family and they
cannot, so they have to cut the trees to make fields for coffee and cocoa. It is important
what’s happening to these trees: do they put them on a big stack and burn them or are
they going to select it and are we going to use this for that and that for this? When we
started in the beginning it was always told to me we could not import Rosewood as a tree
or a log or as a block of wood, it has to be a finished product. So that was rule number
one. We have a sawmill there that precuts our pieces so we can use for marimba bars.
But then unfortunately there was a big Chinese market was opened and they sold big logs
of trees unprepared undone full container full loads to China and that was to me the
beginning of the problem. Then the government found out from where are all these trees
going and coming from and then they stopped all this export for Rosewood.
I think again that was the beginning of the problem. We are sitting here because it’s
not in my opinion that there is not enough rosewoods it’s only a fight about who owns the
Rosewood and who is going to make the money from it in Belize.
I also think that everything has settled down now. The fight with the government and
the Maya is probably still not ultimately fixed. But as long as you have legal Rosewood,
as Ron said, it will be ok. Do it good, make it well because the wood deserves good
treatment. Using this wood in a good way is very important.
Now I’m going to mention one thing: I have seen some manufactures using our dear
Rosewood in ways that don’t necessarily respect the wood. You see a very nice piece of
wood that is completely destroyed by someone who calls themselves a manufacturer.
And for the rest that is basically what my experience is. There’s lot of Rosewood it’s a
wild tree that’s growing in the forest everywhere and they need the large pieces of land
for coffee and cocoa so they are cutting the trees anyways. Only is it very good with the
whole CITES thing , they take care of how Rosewood is exported and imported to the
rest of the world. We have to make a re-export document and a receiver in the country .
So all the instruments that are around they need to have a permit that the wood is really
well imported and exported. We were all worried about when CITES came but at the end
honestly I am really happy because then the wood is totally under control
Gordon: I would now like to introduce John Glowka, of Mode Marimba.
I thought it was really important to include him in this panel discussion because he has a
very different take on these issues and ideas.
John Glowka (Mode Marimba):
I talk really loud and I get really excited so I thought I would stand back from the
microphone. If you can’t hear me in the back just raise your hand.
I’m the only person here who doesn't really know anything about Rosewood other
than when we started to work this idea is that the instruments were too expensive. Just
too expensive. For what ever reason. I don’t know. I live with some Wal-Mart shoppers
- my family - we have maybe a nice car and some nice furniture. Generally a working
class family doesn’t have however much it costs to get this Rosewood. I m hearing if we
doubled the price of this Rosewood we could help these farmers out. We could carve
ourselves out a niche but this seems counter to more marimba. More marimba for you,
more marimba for students, more marimba for colleges. More marimba in music. So we
never even considered using Rosewood. We said this is the sound they want; we had a
theory on sound and what is the closest we can get to that sound at an affordable price.
We set out to find an alternative something that would be good at an affordable price. It
still is not affordable. It’s not a $300 guitar and then you can start classical guitar
lessons. The instrument was just so beautiful to me, and I thought it was amazing. It's
like the pied piper, when people see what you’re doing they are fascinated, like wow
where do you plug it in. The kids were waiting in line to practice this one rosewood
instrument. It was out of tune. The resonators were out of tune. But it was this total
impression that still sounded good. It wasn’t awful: your kid is learning a piece of music.
Doing something and you think wow that’s an amazing thing if we actually had a whole
instrument and could do other things with it, then people would join in and that’s what
happened since we started. People are yearning for this need we have to have a lower
One of the questions you asked was about paradigms. I came in with a completely
different perspective. Five years ago I didn’t even know what a marimba was and I’m
almost 50 years old. I tell people I build marimbas and they are like what “you’re the
weird kid that plays the xylophone. ” They don’t understand the music, they don’t
understand the sound, they don’t even recognize it as a keyboard. It is right there in front
of them, and as soon as you explain it and tell them whats going on the lightbulb goes
off. So I’m giving my own personal experience. My son who was an exceptionally
bright kid was bored out of his mind waiting to hit the gong in percussion, you’re in the
band you’re waiting, waiting. You need something to do. That’s why your drummers or
you want to play an instrument.
So that’s how we got involved. I have been saying there has to be something that’s
acceptable. The students look to their sensei (I call him). It feels good what I'm doing.
Even though Rosewood is what you really want, this is a great place for you to start now
and maybe even a great place for you to create something. Because it’s not exactly, you
have to hear it for what it is and what it sounds like and does the music sound good and
does it make me feel good when I play it. And this is what I see as the shift in paradigms
for alternatives Not just my alternative, there are dozens of alternatives out there. Half of
the percussion departments I go around to are banging on drum brake pads trying to make
noises , something creative with an instrument. And for us at Mode it was about finding
a less expensive alternative that people could find acceptable and find some creative
expression. So we never even considered Rosewood. It was too much time, too much
hassle, and too much money.
I have an uncle who is a salmon fisherman and he feels about his right to catch salmon
no matter how the season goes because he was there first. And when they change the
rules and you start effecting their living it becomes a very personal matter. So whether its
salmon, whether is ivory, whether its Rosewood, the world wants this wood. Its hard to
tell the person in China that this highest aspiration to have a highly valued wood to have
a chair to sit in. We say that’s not a viable use. It is very hard to tell the world that we
are the only people who can do this. It seems to me it’s changing, the world is changing
and this will always be here in some form but it may not always be the way forward.
Fernando Meza (University of Minnesota):
I come from a different perspective as a college professor and professional performer.
Being from Costa Rica originally I have a particular soft spot in my heart for this issue. I
grew up in a country that is absolutely a beautiful tropical paradise where wood is
plentiful. Honduras Rosewood itself is not grown in Costa Rica but we grow woods that
are similar and a few years ago I wanted to actually do something about it. I knew about
this problem from a long time ago and it struck me that if I wanted to do something I
have to do it in my tiny little corner. I decided that I was going to make a step forward
somehow. I met this young man and his father in Costa Rica who at the time were
building traditional folk marimbas like the marimbas of Guatemala and Chiapas. The
instrument is actually the national instrument of Costa Rica by legislative decree and the
woods that are used for making the traditional instruments have never been tapped for the
commercial market or concert instruments and I was curious as to what could happen if I
started to experiment trying to find an alternative. Certainly not a substitute, as it has
been established there is no substitute for Rosewood. But I wanted to see what I could do
and we started experimenting with a number of things. Turns out the marimbas they were
using for the traditional folk instruments did not really work for a concert setting, the
wood was too soft, this, that and the other. The point was that I was trying to find an
alternative. Some kind of alternative that was not rosewood because Rosewood, but not
paduk. Padua doesn’t have the quality we want. I wanted to see if there was anything
that could be in the middle. Maybe there was something in the middle. Maybe three
quarters of the way up closer to Rosewood After a lot of trial and error we did find some
woods that work, that are a very positive alternative.
Two years ago Oscar Biolley had a booth at PASIC, and brought one of his
instrument. You may recall that there was a very warm reception from our percussion
community to the instrument.
I think it is also incumbent on us individually to try and address the issue. We have
here a very esteemed panel of phenomenal marimba craftsman. And those of us in the
implementation side of what they make have a responsibility to see what we can do and
what steps we can take forward. We all love Rosewood. I’m in love with that wood. But
needs to be a sustainability to the production. The trees grow very slowly. I t takes
seventy-five to a hundred years for a tree to really mature. We have to figure out what we
There is an issue on the performance side. Those of you that are in the marching
arena: the use of Rosewood to me is a bit oxymoronic. It just doesn’t make sense to
have this precious wood in the field. And I don’t know if that hurts peoples feeling in the
marching arena. It’s difficult to justify that at least in my mind particularly when the
wood has become so scarce. I think its just incumbent individually for all of us to find a
way to make a step forward. For me it was to find a wood that would help. And the
woods in Costa Rica seem to do the trick.
She-e Wu (Northwestern University/Majestic):
I’m an educator. I’m also a player. So I’m going to speak a little bit from that
perspective. But what Mark Ford was saying about the CITES (Convention International
Trade Endangered Species) is like a little hope. Because so much of it has been bad news
so far. So there’s a little hope. Last month in Russia there was a committee formed
because there are furniture makers and then there are musicians. It doesn’t help us that
there are tons and tons of African Rosewood in Nigeria is being sold to China and
Vietnam and we are lumped into that. And we are not doing even close to that. So that
committee is advocating for musicians and instrument companies and the proposal is
made that perhaps musical instrument companies could be exempt from all these
regulations and if its adopted it would be May of next year. Not sure if that that will
happen or not. We will keep our fingers crossed.
Having said that, one of the questions Gordon put before us is “What will your
company do about the dwindling supply of Honduran Rosewood” and I guess I’ll speak
about that for Majestic. We will have to continue the research for alternatives, high
quality alternative material which means that It could be synthetic and we have to
continue to explore for other woods like Fernando Meza has done. We need to further
pursue research for alternative wood different species. I don’t actually believe there is
only Rosewood ever. Earth is beautiful and I’m not saying we should go start finding
trees and cutting them. But I do think there are other species that might work. It will
cost a lot of money in Research and Development. Which company is going to do that
and spend a $100,0000 to do serious research and find our wood? Who is going to do
this, and are we going to split that cost? We probably should add extended synthetic
instruments in between synthetic and Rosewood bars.
And for me, I am willing now speaking from an educator standpoint, I would love to
start a movement that I said a few years ago, that we practice with synthetic instruments
or bars and transition into Rosewood or some other wood for performance. I inherited a
really great program at Northwestern University, but when I got there, there were maybe
six or seven 5 octave marimbas and guess what? Half of the keyboards had broken
bars. You know what I’m talking about. It’s not just the $300 that your school or your
teacher has to pay for a new bar. That might not be possible. So the awareness that we
have to all have is as educators about this instrument and the wood it is made from.
Fernando also talked about DCI and marching bands. I do think that some directors are
really mindful and are aware of the situation with Rosewood and that discussion certainly
needs to happen. And perhaps we can practice with synthetic material and to change for
the sound quality we look for as performers. I would love to start a movement and have
many of you join me.
Matt Coe (Coe Instruments) Matt was not able to attend, but sent the following
comments to Gordon to read, as follows:
The main issue will be continuing to obtain quality Rosewood easily and at a price
that will allow for a finished product that is still within an affordable range for the
average customer. And the second issue could be out of our control. We’ve heard people
talk about CITES and stuff like that. If its put on Appendix I that essentially stops
instruments being made into the future. That’s out of our control (as some of our
esteemed colleagues here have mentioned). I try to use almost all of the wood purchased.
Wood that is not suitable for use in mallet keyboard instruments. That wood is used for
wood blocks and cutting boards, and. coasters. (Gordon: there is going to be an episode
on CBS news Sunday morning about these issues that Matt was involved with). It is
important to make sure people are really aware of this issue and talk about proper playing
technique and proper care of the instruments to maintain the quality of Rosewood
I think composers have something to do with this. If composers write in a certain way
that requires you to “ play the instrument” in a certain way that can be a problem.
Gordon Stout, for Gordon Peters (retired principal percussionist of the Chicago
Gordon Peters wrote a letter that’s been circulating around to a few people about this
issue. He saw there was an advertisement for this session in Percussive Notes, and took a
sincere interest. Gordon Peters is an important guy to the marimba in this country. When
I started marimba back in the 1960’s, the Etudes by Clair Omar Musser were not
published and unavailable. My father finally got a copy of all them from Gordon Peters,
so he was really an important guy to me. I knew the music from Vida Chenoweths CD,
but I didn’t have the sheet music. He really opened my eyes to a world that I knew was
there, but previously had no access to. He was a member of Marimba Masters marimba
ensemble at Eastman. John Beck, here in the audience today, was also a member of that
group. They played on the Ed Sullivan show and Peters was associated with Clair
Musser and many people of that era for many years. He still is active.
The letter he wrote is not possible to read here due to its length. He made the point that
the five octave marimba is why we are experiencing this Rosewood shortage. When
Clair Musser and marimbists of that generation were around we only had four octave
instruments. Comment by Gordon Stout: I learned to play on a three and a half octave
marimba, and remember when the first 4 1/3 arrived at Eastman - a really big deal! We
were all totally amazed by those extra 3 notes on the bottom of the marimba, and
thought this was just the end of the world. It was so amazing. With the advent of the
five octave marimba there is now less Rosewood. With bigger bars, more wood is used.
Also, with 5 octave marimbas to get the low notes to project they have to use heavier
sticks with yarn which that also contributes to the problem (In Gordon Peters
generation, as when I started to play as well, marimbists normally played with rubber
sticks). He is also interested in any other woods that might be used for making marimbas.
He also advocates building an amplification system into the marimba, and is also
concerned about the preservation of older instruments.
There were a few minutes of comments from the audience at this point, which I do not
have a transcript of. Thanks to John Glowka of Mode Marimba for finding a recording
of this panel discussion, and doing the initial transcription. I have done a small amount
of editing, trying to preserve the speaking style of each inividual panel member, but
making the syntax a little better - I am not an expert here by any means!).
Conclusions (my own):
-There is a global aspect to the problem of the shortage of Honduras Rosewood. As
performers and educators in this country, we are a very small part of the socio-political
situation that brings this issue before us. Rosewood is part of a local ecosystem in
Guatemala and Belize, where it is part of their economy and society in a very small part
of the world. “The more economically valuable the tree is to the economy of the people
of Belize and Guatemala, the more likely we are to have a supply in the
-Rosewood is the only wood that produces the sound that has become the standard for
marimbas world wide. There is no other wood that duplicates its sonic qualities. Using it
to produce marimbas is a way of fulfilling its true purpose. Any wood can be used to
make furniture. Only Rosewood produces marimbas with the sound we have grown to
-If we are going to make a real difference in the world, we have to be able to find a way
to coordinate and to cooperate with organizations that reach these other areas of use